RAL is a color matching system used in Europe. In colloquial speech RAL refers to the RAL CLASSIC system, mainly used for varnish and powder coating. In 1927 the German Reichsausschuss fur Lieferbedingungen und Gutesicherung" (State Commission for Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance) invented a collection of 40 colors under the name of "RAL 840". Prior to that date manufacturers and customers had to exchange samples to describe a tint, whereas from then on they would rely on numbers.
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Color complements are those colors that work well together. They are diagonally opposite each other on the color wheel. Each complement is made up of the two primary colors either side of it which balances the complement.